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How long is the life cycle of ternary lithium?

Shenzhen Sinoli Electronic Co.,Ltd | Updated: Mar 10, 2019

360直播吧Guidance: With the limited range of new energy vehicles, how to improve the endurance ability has affected the whole market. In the battery industry, ternary lithium batteries have rapidly occupied the market of 3C, automobile and so on with many advantages, and gradually replaced the traditional lead-acid batteries.


With the limited range of new energy vehicles, how to improve the endurance ability has affected the whole market. In the battery industry, ternary lithium batteries have rapidly occupied the market of 3C, automobile and so on with many advantages, and gradually replaced the traditional lead-acid batteries. For traditional batteries, ternary lithium batteries have the advantages of long life, energy saving, environmental protection, pollution-free, low maintenance cost, complete charge and discharge, light weight and so on. In some propaganda materials, some people think that ternary lithium batteries have long life, is that really the case? How many cycles does it have? Let's uncover the truth.


What is a ternary lithium battery?


In nature, lithium is the lightest metal with the smallest atomic mass. Lithium is a material with high specific energy because of its active chemical properties, easily losing electrons and being oxidized to Li+. The standard electrode potential is -3.045V and the electrochemical equivalent is 0.26g/Ah. Ternary lithium batteries are lithium secondary batteries with nickel, cobalt and manganese oxide as cathode materials. It fully combines the good cycle performance of lithium cobalt oxide, the high specific capacity of lithium nickel oxide, the high safety and low cost of lithium manganate, and synthesizes multi-element synergistic lithium-intercalated oxide of nickel, cobalt and manganese by means of molecular mixing, doping, coating and surface modification. It is a lithium-ion rechargeable battery widely studied and applied at present.


The theoretical life span is only at a moderate level.


360直播吧The life of ternary lithium batteries is calculated by the ratio of capacity attenuation degree after a certain degree of use, and terminates directly until the capacity life is zero. In general, the algorithm in the industry is to discharge lithium-ion batteries once after they are fully charged, which is called cycle life. Irreversible chemical reactions within lithium batteries can result in a reduction in battery capacity, such as improper use, or extremely high or very low temperature use. For example, the decomposition of electrolyte, the inactivation of active materials, the collapse of positive and negative structures lead to the reduction of lithium ion embedding and de-embedding. Experiments show that higher discharge rate will lead to faster capacity decay. If the discharge current is low, the battery voltage will approach the equilibrium voltage, which can release more energy.


360直播吧The theoretical life of ternary lithium batteries is 1200 times full charge and discharge, that is, full cycle life. According to the frequency of use, three days full charge and discharge, 120 times a year full charge and discharge, the service life of ternary lithium batteries can reach 10 years, even if there is loss in the process of use or the number of days of charge and discharge decreases, it can also reach eight years. The capacity of ternary lithium batteries will be more than 60%, which is the standard.


360直播吧The theoretical life of ternary lithium batteries is moderate in commercial rechargeable lithium batteries. Lithium iron phosphate is about 2,000 cycles, while lithium titanate is said to be able to reach 10,000 cycles. At present, the mainstream battery manufacturers promise more than 500 times in the specifications of ternary batteries (charging and discharging under standard conditions). But after the batteries are packed into batteries, the cycle life of the batteries is about 400 times due to the consistency problem, mainly because the voltage and internal resistance can not be exactly the same. The manufacturer recommends that SOC use window be 10%~90%. Deep charge and discharge is not recommended. Otherwise, it will cause irreversible damage to the structure of positive and negative electrodes of batteries. If calculated by shallow charge and shallow discharge, the cycle life will be at least 1000 times. In addition, if lithium batteries are discharged regularly at high power and high temperature, the battery life will drop dramatically to less than 200 times.